Cloning – A creation of cell
Cloning is the creation of a pure copy of a cell, another living part, or a whole organism. Mitosis is a natural process of cell division that produces two genetically identical daughter cells from a parent cell. This is the most common way cells divide.
“Modern cloning can be considered as the latest version of natural mitosis.”
A Glimpse on History –
First, in 1996 a sheep named Dolly was cloned with the help of this technique. Dolly was not born in the usual way, unlike the other sheep. It was create with the help of cloning process. She is a twin or a carbon copy of her mother’s lookalike. That means she is her mother’s twin sister and she doesn’t have a father! All this has been possible only after success in the cloning process. Let us study through this article what is cloning, how it happens, what are its benefits etc.
What is cloning
A clone is a biological creature that is produce by an asexual method from a single parent (mother or father). The produced clone is completely identical physically and genetically to its parent. Cloning is the creation of a pure copy of a cell, another living part, or a whole organism.
The body is bring up of very small organisms known as cells. These cells perform their normal functions and the presence of DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid in them is the genetic code in all humans. A child gets this genetic code half from the father and half from the mother. A child is form from a single cell i.e. from an egg cell that contains the DNA of both father and mother. This cell divides into millions to become a complete baby. Each cell is a copy of the parent cell and has the same genetic code.
How the cloning process is Done –
For the process of cloning, only the egg cell is require. Scientists extract DNA from an animal’s cell and insert it into an egg. This egg is taken from another animal. Before the implantation procedure, the nucleus or DNA is remove from the egg with the help of a very fine needle.
Types of cloning –
1. Gene Cloning or Molecular Cloning
Under this type of cloning, transgenic microorganisms or transgenic bacteria are first created using gene engineering. Then by creating the proper environment, clones of that GM (Genetically Modified) bacteria are obtain. They are use in many functions such as human usefulness, protein production in insulin, etc.
2. Reproductive Cloning
Under this, a replica of an organism is prepare using the somatic cell transfer technique or other cloning techniques.
3. Therapeutic Cloning
Under this, embryonic columnar cells are produce to replace or repair damaged tissues or organs. It is mostly use to improve the condition of the victim after an accident etc. It can also be consider the end of disability, in many cases, it has been prove.
Some important points –
Cloning has emerged as a great boon for the human world, it can be understood as follows –
One of the biggest applications of cloning is the treatment of diseases that are not easy to cure. We can take advantage of our extensive knowledge in terms of development, especially in the early stages, and apply it to regenerative medicine.
Cells cloned by nuclear somatic cell transfer (SCNT) contribute greatly to scientific research processes, serving as a method for investigating the cause of diseases and for testing various drugs.
In addition, the cells produced by this method can be use for transplantation or to build organs. This area of medicine is known as regenerative medicine.
Stem cells are revolutionizing the way we treat certain diseases. Regenerative medicine allows for autologous stem cell transplantation, eliminating the risk of rejection by the immune system of the affected individual.
It is use for the production of plants or animals. Especially it can be done to recreate extinct animals, whose positive result has been find in many breeding centers.
There will soon come a time in the development of cloning when the nervous system and spinal cord of a person injure in an accident can be regenerate. The thing called disability can be abolish.
This process makes people’s life happier because of generating new hopes.
Some other facts about cloning
- Dolly is the first genetically bring out living organism create by man.
- In 1996, Dr. Ian Wilmut and his colleagues cloned a sheep named Dolly using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) technology for the first time.
- It is also find that clone animals age faster than normal, original animals.
- Scientists are trying to save some endangered species with the help of the cloning process.
- Japanese scientists are trying to bring back Mammoth using cloning technology.
Plastic surgery means the body does not readily accept externally implanted organs. The body’s immune system is adversely influence. Through the technique of human cloning, the doctor will create an exact replica of the biological structure of the cells of any organ from the interested person, which will have a miraculous effect on the surgery. In a serious accident, the injured parts of the person can get completely repair. But at the same time, scientists say that the development of human cloning technology is important not only from the point of view of medical science or surgery but also from the point of view of survival of any person in the future, victory over diseases, and death if needed. Is. The controversy over cloning is not only about the religious or moral side but also about its legal side.
Just as technology is a vast ocean that has no end because it is constantly being traverse, that is why both sides of everything are important. As with anything else, cloning has both its sides, the main disadvantage of cloning stemming from the ethical considerations surrounding the process. Many countries have legally banned cloning as well. In some cases, it has also been find that the cloned animal suffers from health problems.