India is an agricultural country. Our agricultural production is our nation’s prosperity. The Indian farmer’s contribution is essential for achieving this. India is a land of farmers. Almost 75 per cent of our Indian population lives in villages. The Indian farmers are the living icon of India, they are the most dedicated farmers all over the world & they are always busy, working hard day and night. Most of the people of the country are involved directly or indirectly in the agriculture sector. Indian farmers are the one who produces grains and vegetables for the citizens of the country. Each person should respect him. Throughout the year, the Indian farmer remains actively engaged in cultivating the fields, reaping the crops and, sowing seeds.
Importance of Indian Farmers in India :
The Indian economy is an agriculture-based country. Indian farmers are the backbones of our nation’s economy. The Indian farmer is the most hardworking farmers around the world, and they are the living idol of India. They are always busy, working hard for their crops, during day and night. The farmers are the beloved children of Mother India. Growing a wide variety of crops is called Farming; India has multiple cultures, with approximately 720 homeland languages, and 22 major languages are uttered in India. People from different religions live in India & they are occupied in various occupations, but agriculture is the main occupation.
An Indian Farmer has the potential to pass through various seasons, climate change, soil conditions, and often droughts and floods. A farmer has responsibility for preparing the land for harvesting the crops, sowing the seeds, and taking care of it. Some Indian farmers have agreements with processing companies, and few sell their crops in the market. For human consumption, certain crops like grains, fruits and vegetables or cotton, etc are harvested. The farmer should keep the fields water-free, manure, and weeds along with the crops separately from planting. Farmers also have to cultivate some crops to nourish their animals.
Agriculture in India:
Agriculture in India also largely contributes to gross domestic product (GDP). Sustainable agriculture is essential for the development of the entire rural area in the circumstance of food security, rural employment, and environmental techniques like soil conservation, management of natural resources; The Indian agricultural sector has been a symbol of the Green, Yellow, White and Blue Revolutions for the overall rural development.
Nowadays, Some Indian Farmers are deeply engaged in modern farming. In this type, the farmer uses the most modern seed, fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides, pesticides, and the technology is convenient for Best Irrigation with a minimum requirement of water. If the seed has high quality, then it will give a higher harvest. Equipment like tractor harvester is used in some modern agricultural farms & other equipment is used to get a better crop whereas, few perform rainwater harvesting in their farms. Retaining is also being constructed to avoid landslides in their small artificial dams, mainly constructed for agricultural activities.
The prime focus of this year’s budget has been the declaration of a new centrally-sponsored scheme, the ‘Pradhan Mantri Kishan Samman Nidhi’ (PM-KISAN). This scheme assures small and compact farm households guaranteed yearly income support of Rs 6,000. This scheme is hardly the first occurrence of agricultural income support in the country. Farm income support schemes are set up individually in states like Odissa and Telangana.
Indian food is contrasted from the rest of the world, not only in taste but also in its methods of cooking. It reflects a perfect combination of various cultures and ages. Food in India has also been influenced by various civilizations, just like the Indian culture. It has contributed to its share in the overall development and the present form. Indian foods are better known for their spiciness. Throughout India, spices are used generously in foods. Every single spice used in Indian dishes carries some of the other nutritional as well as medicinal properties.
- North Indian foods:
In Kashmir, mostly all the dishes are prepared around the main course of rice found ample in the beautiful valley. Saag is a delicious item that is prepared with a green leafy vegetable Hak. But on the other hand, the high consumption of chapatis as a staple food is seen in states like the Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh. These chapatis are prepared with a variety of flours such as wheat, besan, maida, rice, etc. Other than chapattis, loaves of bread that are baked in these regions include Tandoori, Rumaali, and Naan, etc. The northern region’s impact on Mughlai food is quite visible.
- South Indian Foods:
In the South Indian cuisine, the southern states make great use of spices, fishes, and coconuts. In the foods of TamilNadu to impart sourness to the dishes, the use of tamarind is frequently used. Tamil Food is differentiated from other cuisines. Excessive use of chillies is used in the foods of Andra Pradesh, which is their style of cooking, and it obviously improves the taste of the dishes. The Lamb stew and appams, Malabar fried prawns, Idlis, Dosas, fish moilee, and Puttu; are some of the delicious dishes in Kerala. The sweetened coconut milk is another famous item in this region. Puttu is a popular dish that is glutinous rice powder steamed like a pudding in a bamboo shoot.
Why India Farmers are facing problems in agriculture:
1. Lack of good Quality Seeds
The basic input for the farmers to grow crops is seeds. There is a lack of good quality of seeds in the market. Even though they are available, they are so expensive that the poor and marginal farmers are not able to afford it.
2.Poor Irrigation resources
Irrigation is one of the crucial steps for a crop to grow perfectly. But the only one-third area of the total land in India has a proper irrigation facility available. India has the second-largest irrigated land in the world, but still, India faces this difficulty.
3.Dealing with local traders and middleman
At the end of all agricultural activity, a farmer faces this problem. We often see that farmers cast their crops on roads just because no one purchased it. Due to the absence of proper market places, farmers are not able to sell their crops and obtain a reasonable price. In this situation, the farmers have to look for a middleman and local traders for business.
These middlemen don’t provide a sensible price for their crops, and hence farmers are bound to sell their crops at a lower price or throw on the roads.
4.Unavailability of Storage facilities
The local traders dominate the market and exploitation of farmers in the absence of market places. These middlemen not only create a mess for farmers but also for consumers because they ultimately sell the crops at a very high price after purchasing it from farmers. This becomes even worse for the farmers. They are compelled to sell their crops at whatever price is offered to them.
5.Lack of Modern Equipment
Even in the 21st century, the majority of Indian farmers use traditional tools for agriculture. This leads to the wastage of Manpower and energy and less yield per capita labour force. Only a quiet use of the machine is seen in irrigation, harvesting, and transportation. There are some reasons for farmers for not using modern equipment. Firstly, because of the lack of awareness, and due to the lack of financial resources. Secondly, even if a farmer can afford the equipment, the farmer faces issues regarding electricity as electricity is not available in the village areas for a proper duration of time.
-TRISHA A KATTAR (CW)