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A few years back people were making science fiction films about the things they thought impossible. But now, these this became possible due to advanced science and technology.

Science is still improving and there are much more amazing things that has to be invented. A few years back people are thinking that flying is impossible and after some years that made it possible. The science is proving that there is nothing impossible.

Semiconductor chip

The arrival of semiconductor chips in science upgraded this world into a digitalized version. In 1946, the first-ever digital computer (ENIAC) built was with the zenith of vacuum tube technology. The size of the computer is so large since the vacuum tube itself takes more space. This was weighing around 30 tons with 1 lakh parts, which included 18,000 vacuum tubes. But this thing needed around 200 kW of electric power. But vacuum tubes used to fail within days and we had to replace it over and again. In the mid-1940s, AT&T’s (American Telephone and Telegraph Company) found out that semiconductors could replace vacuum tubes. Transistors along with a resistor and capacitor solved the problem of high power consumption.

 After some time, an engineer named Robert Noyce came up with the idea of the chip with an integrated circuit. The first chip-based computer was the U.S. air force, built-in 1961. They converted bulk calculators into pocket calculators using this chip and small batteries to provide the required power. After some time, Intel owner Gorden Moore put forward a law called Moore’s law in 1960. According to this the power of the chip doubles every year and the cost becomes half. This held for more than four decades.

Today, every latest electronic device contains a chip like micro ovens, washing machines, mobiles, computers, etc. Now we keep devices like smartphones in our pocket which is more than a thousand times better than the large computer made by vacuum tube. Today’s internet, storing data, and almost every electronic gadget works efficiently and easily because of this semiconductor chip.

The invention of the Aeroplane

In India, some people believe in the ancient epic Ramayana, which includes the great Prince Rama’s quest to rescue his wife Sita. That Ravan kidnapped Sita using a flying vehicle called Pushpaka Vimana. Some believed the story to be true, but some didn’t and thought it was just a fairy tale. But, in the year 1903, the Wright Brothers (Orville and Wilbur) made the fairy tale real by building a sustained and controlled heavier than an air-powered flight that can carry up to two people. They also successfully flew it for around 6 km on December 7, 1903. By the same techniques with few modifications, they made military aircrafts, for destroying enemy territory. Which includes the weapon system.

The Wright Brothers built the modern airplane by following the works of Sir George Cayley. In 1799, he stepped forward with the idea of building the modern airplane. He identified that a flying vehicle that is heavier than air is affected by four major forces namely Weight, drag, lifts, and thrust. Cayley invented the first glider capable of carrying people aloft. He found out that in order to build a flying airplane. We should build a light weighted engine capable of providing the required thrust and lift.

A quest to space

Scientists were sending signals to outer space to know about the existence of extra-terrestrial organisms. Along with that, they were trying on visiting different planets as well to know the habitat and chemical composition of it.

Visit Moon

In the year 1959, Soviet Union’s Luna 1 is launched to the moon’s orbit for the first time. This was unscrewed spacecraft, with the main intention of studying the temperature, pressure on the moon and its magnetic field, and other factors. But due to some technical issue, the moon’s trajectory varied and it went 6,400 km away from the lunar surface. Thereby it failed to do its main objective to collide with the moon. On 24 September 1976, Luna 16 bring back the soil sample from the moon successfully. This helped to deve

After that many rockets carrying spacecraft from many countries were launched to the moon from which some went successful and some failed. Then many dogs, apes, and other living things from the earth are sent to the moon for studying purpose and after is confirmed to be safe crewed spacecraft are launched. The first person to step on the moon is Neil Armstrong from NASA. Totalling twelve people have been landed on the moon. NASA conducted six successful missions on the moon landing for over 3 years and 5 months from 20 July 1969 to 14 December 1972.

Mars Exploration

Mars is the second closest planet to Earth after Venus. Since the distance between Venus and Earth changes perpetually as they revolve around the sun, it is difficult to send a satellite to Venus. So in 1960, scientists started mars mission. Four space agencies have made success in mars’ mission, which are NASA, the Soviet Union Space program, the European Space Agency, and ISRO. While other agencies from different nations like Japan, Russia, and China were attempted and failed.The first successful mars mission to enter its orbit was on 14-15 July 1965 by NASA’s Mariner 4. Whereas NASA’s Viking one lander became the first successful landing on Mars on July 20, 1976.

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also known as Mangalyaan is considered as the most affordable mission. It was launched on November 5, 2013, and on 24 September 2014, it was successfully put into Mars orbit in its first attempt. The total cost of this mission was about Rs.450 crores. On September 28, 2014, MOM controllers released the first global view of mars.

Out of so many attempts of landing robotic and unmanned spacecraft on the moon, only 10 have succeeded. On February 18, 2021, the NASA successfully landed its rover Perseverance on mars.

Is our future on mars possible?

The founder and CEO of SpaceX, Elon Musk said that the private spaceflight company is on track to launch its first unscrewed mission to Mars in as little as four years from now. SpaceX is building a spacecraft, which can utilize resources available on mars to run. Which can carry more crew members and other heavy tools. Elon Musk says that it is necessary to build a habitat base on mars if in case of the earth destroyed by some nuclear attack or other reasons. A lot of government and private organizations were planning on visiting mars and building a sophisticated environment suitable for mankind. This may become real in twenty to thirty years from now with this rate development in science.


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