Yaudheya Kingdom: Ancient history manages to stupefy the masses now and then. From the mightiest battles to mightiest pen, the palaces adorn with artistic works to the science and religion. There is enough to convince us our ancestors were far more intriguing and scientific than us.
The great empires of Magadha, the Guptas, the Kushans and many more have a glorified past. But the lesser-known tribes are often skimmed from the purview. One of the clans that need a mention is the bravest among the braves, Kshatriyas of Kshatriya is the Yaudheya.
Did you know earlier the ancient name of Haryana is Bahudhanakya?
The Yaudheya occupied the Bahudhanakya region of Punjab in the ancient period. From Mauryas to the Guptas their contribution to these empires is commendable.
Who were Yaudheya?
Yaudheya was the son of Ushinara and Nriga. The clan of Yaudheya shares its lineage from here. It is the most agreeable version.
According to the literature of Mahbaharta and Panini’s literature, Yudhisthira married a girl from the Yaudheya clan. They had a son named Yaudheya.
Yaudheya as the name exhibits refers to those who did frequent battles. Or the Kshatriya among the Kshatriya.
Sources the clan
The excavation in Uttar Pradesh leads to first coins found off the Yaudheya. Subsequently, archaeologists performed excavation for Coins in Kaningam, Sonipat, Hansi, Kharkhoda, Jind and many more places. However, the coins of Rohtak are the most significant.
Punching machines of coins
The Yaudheya’s were intellectual and skilled in making coins. Also, the machinery in the excavation has signified the same.
Birbal Sahni in his book compared the coin-making process of Yaudheya to that of Romans. He cited how more than one coins were punched with the machines and how efficient the machinery of the Yaudheyas was. Notably, the machines of Yaudheya is more than 2 centuries older than the Romans.
Literature records mentioning the clan are- Mahabharata, the Purans, Bhrihatsamhita, Mahamayuri, Chandravakyakaran, Kashika etc.
Also as per these sources, Pandav Nakul won over the first western clans-the Yaudheyas.
Battles and Empires:
As the name promulgates, the Yaudheya fought during their life spans. The following are some important battles and empires Yaudheyas were part of:
Mauryas and Yaudheya
Chandragupta Maurya merged the Yaudheya-Gana into his empire. Before he won over Nandas, he accomplished integrating several small states and clans in the west.
Moreover, the Yaudheyas enjoyed an important role in the army of Mauryas. The chief of Yaudheya was the Mahasenapati of Mauryan Army.
After Pushyamitra Sunga and Menander died, the Yaudheya declared themselves independent. They made Bahudhanakya their empire. This includes present-day Rohtak, Hisar, Karnal and Gurugram.
Battle with Ruderman
The Junagarh rock inscription promulgates the Rudraman’s win over the Yaudheya. However, Rudraman acknowledges the might of Yaudheyas.
But, the Yaudheya survived the battle and later did establish independent state.
Kushanas and Yaudheya
Among the foreign invaders, Kushans were the most powerful. The Yaudheya resisted them but in vain. The Yaudheyas submitted to the Kushans. The excavated coins of Kushans from Bahudhanakya signify the same. Also, the coins of Kushans portray the Hindu deities, which further strengthens the claim. They also built sculptures of Karthikeya and several other deities.
Battle with Samudragupta
Allahabad inscription promulgates the win of Monarch Samudragupta over Yaudheya. After the battle, the reigns of Yaudheya merged with the Guptas.
Boundaries of Yaudheya Kingdom-state
The boundaries frequently expanded and contracted in the history. In the beginning, during 5th century BCE, the state was small. After its independence from the Mauryan Empire, the reigns of Yaudheya flourished. It included Haryana, Rajasthan, some parts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab. Importantly, coins excavated also point in this direction.
The capital of Yaudheya was Prakritanak Nagar. ‘Prakrita’ translates into Capital. Other major cities were Rohtak and Sirsa. Also, the two probably were capitals of some cardinal divisions.
- Yaudheya controlled a large part of Haryana.
- Administration resembles that of Mauryas.
- It was a Democratic State. King was elected by public representatives.
- Existence of Parliament.
- The king was also the Mahasenapati and Mahashatrap. Hence, he was the most powerful.
- Officers and clerks existed in the administrative divisions.
- Village heads and city heads looked after the administrative reforms at the ground level.
- They checked several foreign invasions.
Fall of the Empire
There is not much evidence as to their decline. No concrete evidence is yet known. However, one can say that after the battle with Samudragupta, their empire merged with Guptas. Hence losing their independence to the.
Since then, there is no mention of Yaudheya-clan in the historical records.
-MAHENDER CHITTIMALLA (SEO)